Jettisoning Socio-economic marginalization, authoritarian governance, and the formation of one army is essential for democracy to work in South Sudan.
South Sudan, like many other fledgling states, is undergoing a difficult political atmosphere, political tensions, and natural disasters that affect its economy. In spite of this, these conditions are not unique to fledgling states.
Four years after Uganda obtained independence, Dr. Milton Obote, the then Prime Minister of Uganda, clashed with the Kabaka of Buganda, Sir Edward Muteesa II, who was also the President of Uganda, and launched a military attack on the Kingdom, leading to the collapse of his authority.
A series of confrontations ensued before the NRA clashed in the streets of Kampala after the triumphant bush war that brought President Museveni to power.
Since 1986, Uganda’s security has stabilized, the economy has expanded, and a fair democratic process has been implemented. Ghana, like Uganda, had several short-lived civilian administrations that were interfered with by military authority until 1992, when they embraced a democratic rule.
Accra has had a number of elections, political transfers, and economic growths. We may go over the continent and see that wars are a natural part of the growth of a nation, particularly on the African continent.
The majority of these disputes are the result of socioeconomic marginalization, authoritarian governance, and power aspirations on the part of people who believe they are entitled to be at the helm. Countries such as Sudan, Mali, Chad, Libya, Guinea, and Congo are dealing with at least two of these challenges while yet managing to move the nation forward, and we can see rays of brightness.
The inability to completely integrate the various rebel factions into the South Sudan People’s Defense Forces, previously known as the Sudan People’s Liberation Army, is a major challenge for South Sudan.
Many saw this as a viable plan for bringing peace to the nation, but it has faced challenges such as funding the process and loyalists to leaders. Any dispute at the top will inevitably trickle down and split the army if the army is not unified.
Juba must address the issue of security. The regional nations are keeping an eye on Juba and are eager to help the fledgling country attain its goal of independence.
In the south, President Yoweri Museveni, who saw the signing of the peace deal, has continued to provide security advice to the country and guarantee that it does not devolve into another war. Once the country has completely integrated all armed factions, the issue of security and peace would be a thing of the past.
After the security issue has been resolved, the nation must concentrate on economic development. Today, the oil industry contributes 70% of GDP and more than 90% of governmental income, with the remainder coming from various economic industries.
The country must diversify its income source by establishing an open economy with its neighbors, particularly the East African bloc, to enable the free movement of commodities and labor.
Every year, Uganda earns around US$350 million and receives approximately US$216 million in exports from Kenya. In exchange, S.Sudan receives taxes from the two countries, which are used to fund infrastructure development.
Many may argue that democracy should be the primary priority, but civic democracy is reserved for nations that have resolved basic concerns and already have procedures in place.
Nations, not elections, have evolved resilient institutions that function. As a consequence, Is South Sudan ready for elections, which will cost millions of dollars and may almost certainly result in controversial problems that may delay the country’s growth?